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2019 WAEC Marketing Obj & Essay Question & Answers Posted Now



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1a) Entrepreneurship refers to the concept of developing and managing a business venture in order to gain profit by taking several risks in the corporate world. Simply put, entrepreneurship is the willingness to start a new business.


(i)This era gave rise to marketing departments
(ii)The era gave rise to marketing companies.
(iii)It led the relationship marketing and social media
(iv)mobile marketing was introduced
(v)The use of technology in marketing
(i)Marketing creates employment
(ii)Marketing creates utilities.
(iii)Increases awareness of goods and services
(iv)Increases sales of company
(v)Marketing Helps in Transfer, Exchange and Movement of Goods.

product concept” is based upon the idea that customers prefer
products that have the most quality, performance, and features, some customers prefer a product that is simpler and easier to use.
The Selling Concept proposes that customers, be individual or organizations will not buy enough of the organization’s products unless they are persuaded to do so through selling effort. So organizations should undertake selling and promotion of their products for marketing success.
Production Concept is a belief that states that the customers would always acquire products which are cheaper and more readily available (or widely available). The production concept advocates that more the products or
production, more would be the sales.
The societal marketing concept holds that the organization’s task is to determine the needs, wants, and interests of a target
market and to deliver the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves or enhances the well being of both the individual consumer and society

5a Advertising is any communication, usually paid-for, specifically intended to inform and or influence one or more people.

(1) direct mail
(2) newspapers and magazines
(3) radio advertising
(4) television advertising (5) film advertising
(6) outdoor advertising

1. It Is a Costly Function
One strong objection to advertising is that it is a very costly function. Many studies have proved that the cost of ads exceeds that of sales by a small but significant percent. In theory, the high cost of advertising is covered by increased sales of the advertised product, but this usually is not the case.
Advertising is an indirect cost which is added into distribution expenses. When expenses increase, the selling price of products does too. With large advertisers spending thousands of dollars a week solely on ads and marketing, advertising costs make up a significant part of the price of an advertised product. Thus, consumers have to pay higher prices for products.
Advertising is an economic waste because unbalanced advertising causes certain goods to cost more than they should.

2. Misleading Claims About Products
Some advertisers cleverly create misleading impressions of their goods—they present a very rosy picture of their products with the object of increasing their sales. In reality, their item is of inferior quality

3. Encouragement of Monopoly
Advertisement restricts competition among products. Big industrialists and manufacturers can use advertising to increase their
1. Storage:
This is the basic function of warehousing. Surplus commodities which are not needed immediately can be stored in warehouses. They can be supplied as and when needed by the customers.
2. Price Stabilization:
Warehouses play an important role in the process of price stabilization. It is achieved by the creation of time utility by warehousing. Fall in the prices of goods when their supply is in abundance and rise in their prices during the slack season are avoided.
3. Risk bearing:
When the goods are stored in warehouses they are exposed to many risks in the form of theft, deterioration, exploration, fire etc. Warehouses are constructed in such a way as to minimise these risks. Contract of bailment operates when the goods are stored in wave-houses.

4. Financing:
Loans can be raised from the warehouse keeper against the goods stored by the owner. Goods act as security for the warehouse keeper. Similarly, banks and other financial institutions also advance loans against warehouse receipts. In this manner, warehousing acts as a source of finance for the businessmen for meeting business operations.
Demand: is the total amount of
goods and services that all
consumers are willing and able
to purchase at a specific price in
a marketplace. In other words, it
represents how much
consumers can and will buy from
suppliers at a given price level in
a market.
Need: is a consumer’s desire for
a product’s or service’s specific
benefit, whether that be
functional or emotional.
Exchange: process is simply
when an individual or an
organisation decides to satisfy a
need or want by offering some
money or goods or services in
Market: is the exchange of goods
and services takes place as a
result of buyers and sellers being
in contact with one another,
either directly or through
mediating agents or institutions
Transaction: is an activity in
which goods, services or money
is passed from one account or
person to another; and act of
doing business; an agreement,
exchange, contract that takes
place between two parties and
establishes a legal obligation.

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WAEC Literature In English 2021/2022 Answers




WAEC Literature In English 2021 Questions

WAEC Literature In English Questions and Answers 2021 Objectives Answers

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WAEC Literature In English Questions 2021 and Answers

Section A
Through Kabria and Sylv Po’s visit to Maa Tsuru, Fofo gets a chance to question her mother’s irresponsible nature. Maa Tsuru had no answers to Fofo’s questions just as she could not give any other option to Fofo apart from, “Go away from Accra” when Fofo inquired about why Poison attempted to rape her. Fofo from here knew she could not rely on her mother for protection; something that will come as a heavy blow to any fourteen year old. Kabria asked Fofo when inquiring about her rehabilitation process about staying with her mother again. Fofo’s answer was an emphatic ‘Never!’. This showed how sour the relationship between mother and daughter had turned.

Critically analyzing the relationship between Maa Tsuru and Fofo based on their decision making alone, the mother becomes the daughter while the daughter becomes the mother. Maa Tsuru’s poor decisions and infantile attitude suits more a teenager than a mother of six children. Fofo, the fourteen year old, seem to make the right choices guided by her instincts and naivety.

In the end, Maa Tsuru failed as Fofo’s mother and it took a once-in-a-life-time chance for Fofo to be saved off the jaws of the streets through the benevolence and motherly instincts of Kabria.

(1 Continuation)
Fofo who is confused, wants to know why the death of Baby T should necessitate an attempted rape on her, why Poison should get angered about a mother being told of her daughter’s demise.
Hence Maa Tsuru explains how poison came to the house to turn her into leper. Apparently, Poison had come to the house to openly reveal how Maa Tsuru released Baby T into prostitution and made money out of her demise. As a wicked person, Poison had threatened to replace Baby T with Fofo if Maa Tsuru or others involvement in the deal make him unhappy.
Fofo is vexed, protests her mother’s persistence that she should go away, and ponders where her mother wants her to go, especially when she lacks the wherewithal. She demands something better from her mother who has none to offer but Maa Tsuru regrets what she thinks “should not have happened”. The above made Fofo inquire if her father is still her mother’s husband.
Frustrated and weeping, Maa Tsuru decided to warn her daughter not to speak to her anyhow. Fofo is not impressed. Maa Tsuru prays silently for an end to her experience, after her daughter had told her she never wanted to come to her and her mother had shown surprise.
Later, fofo calmly asked why Poison is angry about Maami Borni coming to tell Baby T’s death to her mother and if anyone has spoken of what really happened.
Lastly, Maa Tsuru’s laments do not impress Fofo and later shows lack of concern to her mother’s consoling words; if she liked the plastic bag in the room. She(Fofo) meets Ordaley outside and inform that all is not right, they left afterwards.
In conclusion, this episode shows how decayed and depraved Shana society is in the book “faceless”


Although the play, there is a host of irresponsible men paraded. Muted leaves Maa Tsuru because he thinks she is cursed after having four children with her, he leaves her with no financial help. Nii Kpakpo preys on her and also leaves her after two children and also leaving her astray. He sexually molests his step daughter, Baby T. There is Dina, the founder of MUTE, whose husband left four years after their marriage because they had no child. Onko is the fetish relative who rapes Baby T and bribes his way out of trouble. He eventually murders her in bid to change his financial woes. Instead of working hard, he believes the herbalists ritual will perform an immediate miracles on his business. The only man who says with his family in the novel is Kabira’s husband and he isn’t exactly portrayed in a good light. He’s stingy and does not help out in the house. He nags his wife and his more interested in his image than the comfortability of Kabira who uses her old car, creamy to do all the house runs without help from her husband

Alani, the third child of yaremi reject his ancestry by living ibadan for a long time. As a son to Ajumobi he is the heir and the right person to inherit his property. But his concerns are entirely different and values are not the same with those of the villagers too,he adopted an individualistic attitude to life, a sharp contrast to the laufi villager’s communistic deposition to the world around them.He is neither concerned about the well-being of his old mother nor his late father’s properties which he is the rightful owner of the properties.
Alani was advice by Uncle Dayo of his responsibilitiy as the only son of his father, he tell him of the continuity of life which even plants and animals obey.


WAEC Literature 2021 Questions and Answers

Bigger berates himself for somehow failing to acquire more money during the murder and cover-up, feeling that he should have planned things more carefully. He visits Bessie and shows her the money. Bessie tells Bigger that his employers live in the same section of town as the Loeb family. They discuss a recent case in which Richard Loeb and his friend Nathan Leopold kidnapped a neighborhood boy, killed him, and tried to collect ransom money from the family. Bigger remembers the case and begins to concoct his own ransom plan. Bigger sees that Bessie is as blind as his family, as she uses liquor to blot out the pain of her life. He struggles over whether or not to trust her, but tells her that he has a big plan to obtain more money. Bigger tells Bessie that the Daltons’ daughter ran away with a “Red,” and that he took the money from Mary’s room after she disappeared. He says he wants to write a ransom note and collect more. He assures Bessie that Mary has disappeared for good, but Bessie is suspicious of how he knows for certain. When Bessie asks Bigger if he is involved with Mary’s disappearance, he threatens to beat her. He tells Bessie to retrieve the ransom money at a planned drop-off site, assuring her that he will be able to warn her if the money is marked or if the police are watching, as he works for the Daltons and will be privy to their plans. Bessie hesitantly agrees to help, so he gives her Mary’s money for safekeeping


Walpole’s The Castle of Otranto displays many of the features that would become stereotypically Gothic, being deployed around ghosts and spirits. For example, the story takes place in a foreign country, in a medieval castle with towers and secret passageways. The castle is eerie and ominous, plagued by creaking hinges, trap doors clanging shut, the wailing of the wind, and the life-like quality of people in paintings.

Supernatural elements like ghosts, visions, mysterious suits of armor, and prophecies run through the novel. Though Walpole is often credited as the first Gothic novelist, such fanciful elements were in fact drawn from medieval romance, heroic tales in which knights often encountered marvels or supernatural phenomena on their adventures. Though the Gothic novel was always considered lowbrow literature even during the height of its popularity, before Walpole, “gothic” was looked down upon even more, and associated with barbarism. Walpole’s novel helped to change that, and his unfettered enthusiasm for the Middle Ages was extraordinary. One of many accomplishments he is well known for is Strawberry Hill, a faux-medieval castle Walpole built for himself and on which he based The Castle of Otranto.

Though many of the literary devices found in Otranto are now recognized as archetypically “Gothic,” Walpole’s novel indulged in humor in a way that later Gothic works such as Dracula and Frankenstein did not. Part of this is achieved merely by his presentation of Gothic and supernatural elements. For example, Conrad’s death by giant helmet, while tragic to the story’s characters, is completely absurd. The setting itself, often merely eerie in later Gothic works, is also occasionally humorous. The castle’s “deep and hollow groan” is “the effect of pent-up vapours” — in other words, the castle is farting.

WAEC Literature 2021 Questions and Answers Continues

Drama & Poetry

Aloho comes in contact with her secondary school mate, Ochuole, who promises to secure a job for her by speaking with the Honourable Minister of External Relations, Chief Haladu Ade-Amaka, on her behalf. Ochuole keeps to her promise, and Aloho is offered a job as one of Chief’s protocol officers, not knowing that the job requires more than what she thinks. She is also unaware of the fact that Ochuole is being used by Chief to perpetrate criminal activities, especially drug trafficking. As regards this, Madam Hoha is not left out as her restaurant/hotel is the hideout for Chief’s criminal activities. As one of her hidden job descriptions, Aloho is given a package containing hard drugs to deliver in the United States of America. Having no idea of what is contained in the package, Aloho accepts the package from Chief Ade-Amaka wholeheartedly and subsequently gets arrested at the airport by drug law enforcement officers. Aloho is later released by the Judge and the prosecutors after collecting a huge sum of money from Chief. Upon her release, she discovers that she is pregnant by Chief and decides to abort the pregnancy after feeling being humiliated for having been used by Ochuole and Chief Ade-Amaka. Unfortunately, after several futile attempts to abort the pregnancy, Aloho dies after giving birth to the child. Ogeyi Ogar, Aloho’s true friend (whose pieces of advice she had turned down) is bent on having all those who used her friend punished. As a result, she reports Chief to the police. After an investigation initiated by ACP Yakubu and a careful examination of the legal issues in the illegal activities of Chief Ade-Amaka by the Judge of the Wasa High Court of Justice, Chief Ade-Amaka and his accomplices are found guilty. In the end, justice prevails as the all the corrupt public officers in the play have a harvest of the corrupt practices they’ve sown for years.

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2021/2022 WAEC Physics Expo





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No: 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9 and 11 Posted

Workdone = 1/2Fe
= 1/2 × 40 × 1/100
= 1/5 = 0.2J

(i)Navigation satellites e.g global position system – GPS
(ii) Communication satellites eg ANIK

V = 2πR/T
For every second,
Speed, V = 2πR
V = 2 × 22/7 × 6300
V = 39,600km/s
(i) Reflection
(ii) Refraction
(iii) Diffraction
The scientific principle underlying the operation of a fibre optics is the principle of total internal reflection by which light signals can be transmitted from one place to another with a negligible loss of energy.

Core: The core is the light transmission area of the fibre, either glass or plastic cladding. The function of the cladding is to provide a lower refractive index at the core interface in order to cause reflection within the core so as to enable light waves transmitted through the fibre.

Cladding: It functions as a gadget that provides a clear refractive index at the core interface in order to cause reflection within the core so that light waves are transmitted through the fibre.
Hooke’s law states that the extension e produced by an elastic material is directly proportional to the applied force provided the elastic unit is not exceeded.

(i) Given extension, e = I2 – I1 = 0.75 – 0.20 = 0.55m
Force applied, Fe = (1.95 – 0.30) × 10
= 1.65 × 10 = 16.5N
Force constant , K = F/R = 16.5/0.55 = 30N/m

(ii) Using F = K (I1 – Io)
m1g = K ( I1 – Io)
= 0.30 × 10 = 30(0.20 – Io)
= 0.10 = 0.20 – Io
Io = 0.20 – 0.10
Io = 0.10m
Length of spring when it was unloaded = 0.10m

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

(i) Temperature
(ii) Size of particles

Rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the square root of density under given conditions of temperature and pressure. ie R ∝ 1/√d

T = circumference of the orbit/orbit velocity
T = 2πR/v
But V = √GM/R
T = 2π√R³/GM
Root measurement value of an alternating current is the value of A.C current that has the same heating affect as a D.C current

Impedance is the affective resistance of an electric circuit arising from the combined affects of ohmic resistance and reactance. (i.e resistors, indicators and capacitors)

Current in circuit , I = 60/120 = 0.5A
Voltage across device , Vr = 120V
Voltage across capacitor , Vc = √V² – Vr
Vc = √240² – 120²
Vc = 207.846V
Ic = I = 0.5
Xc = Vc/Ic = 207.846/0.5 = 415.7Ω
Capacitance, C = Xc/2πf = 415.7/2*3.142*50 = 1.323F

The capacitance of a capacitor is the ratio of the amount of charge on its plates to the potential difference between them. ie C = ∑/V

(i) Charge in both capacitors are the same
∑1 = Q2
ie C1V1 = C2V2 ………(1)
Total capacitance ,C = C1C2/C1+C2
C = C2/1+C2/C1 = C2/1+V/V2
C = C2V2/V1+V2 = C2V2/2
C= 1/2C2V2

(ii)Voltage across, V1 = (C2/C1+C2) × V
V1 = (C1/C1+C2) × V
But C1/C2 = d2/d1 = 5/2
V1 = (1/(5/2+1)) × 2 = 2/7 ×2 = 4/7Volts
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2021/2022 WAEC Chemistry Practical Specimen Question And Answer




2021 WAEC Chemistry Practical Specimen Questions And Answers

WAEC Chemistry 2021 Specimen.

The following apparatus and materials will be required by each candidate in addition to the fittings and reagents normally contained in a chemistry laboratory.

(a) one burette of 50cm³ capacity.

(b) one pipette, either 20cm³ or 25cm³.

All candidates at a centre will use pipettes of the same volume. These should be clean and free from grease.

(c) the usual apparatus for titration;

(d) the usual apparatus and reagents for qualitative work including the following with all reagents appropriately labelled.

(i) dilute sodium hydroxide solution.

(ii) dilute hydrochloric acid.

(iii) dilute trioxonitrate(v) acid.

(iv) silver trioxonitrate(v) solution.

(v) acidified potassium dichromate solution.

(vi) aqueous ammonia.

(vii) lime water.

(viii) red and blue litmus paper.

(ix) dilute tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid.

(e) Spatula.

(f) filtration apparatus.

(g) one beaker.

(h) one boiling tube.

(i) four test tubes.

(j) Methyl orange as an indicator.

(k) mathematical table/calculator.

(l) wash bottle containing distilled/deionized water.

(m) a burning splint.

(n) watch glass.

(o) bunsen burner/source of heat.

(p) droppers.

(3) Each candidate should be supplied with the following where n is the candidate’s serial number.

(a) 150cm³ of a solution of HCL, in a corked flask or bottle, labelled “An”. These should all be the same containing 9.0cm³ of concentrated HCL (about 60%) per dm³ of solution.

(b) 150cm³ of NaOH solution in a corked flask or bottle labelled “Bn”. These should all be the same containing 4.8g of NaOH per dm³ of solution.

(c) one spatula of a uniform mixture of CUSO4 and (NH4)2CO3 in a specimen bottle and corked immediately, and labelled “Cn”. The components of the mixture should be in the ratio 1 : 1 by mass.

(d) One spatula full of crystals of iodine in a specimen bottle labelled “Dn”. This must be the same for all candidates.

WAEC Chemistry Practical Questions

1. A is a solution of potassium tetraoxomanganate (VII). B is a solution of iron (II) Chloride containing 4.80 g of the salt in 250cm3 of solution.

(a) Put A into the burette. Pipette 20.0cm3 or 25.0 of B into a conical flask, add 20.0cm3 of H2SO4(aq)and titrate with A. repeat the titration to obtain concordant titire values.

Tabulate your results and calculate the average volume of A used. The equation of the reaction is: MnO–4(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) > Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(I)

(b) From your results and the information provided, calculate the

(i) concentration of B in moldm-3;

(ii) Concentration of A in moldm-3 (

iii) number of moles of Fe2+ in the volume of B pipetted [FeCI2 = 127 gmol-1].

Credit will be given for strict adherence to the illustrations for observations precisely and for accurate inferences.

All tests, observations and inferences must be clearly entered in the booklet in ink at the time they are made.

2. C and D are inorganic salts.

Carry out the following exercises on them.

Record your observations and identify any gas(es) evolved. State the conclusions and draw fromt the result of each test.

(a) Put all of C in a test tube and add about 5cm3 of distilled water. Shake thoroughly and test the resulting solution with litmus paper. Divide the solution into three portions.

(i) To the first portion, add NaOH(aq) in drops, then in excess.

(ii) To the second portion, add NH3(aq) in drops, then in excess.

(iii) To the third portion, add AgNO3(aq) followed by HCI(aq)

(b)(i) Put all of D in a test tube and add about 5cm3 of distilled water.

Shake thoroughly and feel the test tube. (ii) To about 2cm3 of the solution, add HCI(aq).

3. State the observations that would be made when each of the following reactions are carried out in the laboratory

(a) Addition of 2cm3 of bench H2SO4(aq) to 2cm3 of barrium chloride solution;

(b) Addition of 2cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid to 1 g of powered iron(II) sulphide (FeS);

(c) Addition of 2cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid to 1 g of iron filings and allowed to stand for sometime.

WAEC Chemistry Practical Answers

1. Equation of the reaction: MnO–4(aq) + 5Fe2+(aq) + 8H+(aq) > Mn2+(aq) + 5Fe3+(aq) + 4H2O(I)



It turns blue litmus paper red.

Pure copper(II) sulfate is white. It is also known as anhydrous copper(II) sulfate because it has no water in it. When water is present in a sample of copper(II) sulfate it turns blue.

This colour change can be used to detect the presence of water (or water vapour).

When exposed to light, silver chloride decomposes into gray metallic silver and chlorine. The light sensitivity of the silver chloride and other silver halides, such as silver bromide and silver iodide, forms the basis of the photographic process.


Phenolphtalein is chosen because it changes color in a pH range between 8.3 – 10. It will appear pink in basic solutions and clear in acidic solutions. ..

When exposed to light, silver chloride decomposes into gray metallic silver and chlorine. The light sensitivity of the silver chloride and other silver halides, such as silver bromide and silver iodide, forms the basis of the photographic process.

The ammonia combines with silver ions to produce a complex ion called the diamminesilver(I) ion, [Ag(NH3)2]+. This is a reversible reaction, but the complex is very stable, and the position of equilibrium lies well to the right.

Pure copper(II) sulfate is white. It is also known as anhydrous copper(II) sulfate because it has no water in it. When water is present in a sample of copper(II) sulfate it turns blue.

This colour change can be used to detect the presence of water (or water vapour).



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